Course required for degree Diploma in Astrophysics.
III Semester 2+2, IV Semester 2+2

INTRODUCTION. Subject, Methods, Organisation and Importance of Astrophysics. The Place of this Subject in the Science of Astronomy. A Short Historical Review of the Development of Astronomy and Astrophysics from their Beginnings till Present Day.

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION OF CELESTIAL BODIES AND METHODS OF ITS MEASURING. Observed Characteristics of Radiation. Electromagnetic Spectrum. The Eye as the Receiver of Radiation. The Radiation Field: Basic Terms and Laws. Photometry. The Influence of the Earth's Atmosphere on the Astronomical Observations. Optical Telescopes. Radio Astronomy. Radio Telescopes. The Development of Nonvisible (Nonoptical) Astronomy.

CHARACTERISTIC OF STABLE STARS. Distances of Celestial Bodies. Stellar Motion. Luminosity. Apparent Magnitude. Colour Index. Bolometric Correction. Absolute Magnitude. Stellar Spectra and their Classification. Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) Diagram. Spectral Parallax. Determination of Stellar Radii.

STELLAR STRUCTURE. Stellar Atmospheres. Chemical Composition and Physical Conditions on Stars. Stellar Internal Structure. Stellar Models. Sources of Stellar Energy. Gravitational Contraction. Thermonuclear Reactions. The Neutrino Problem.

BINARY STARS. Binary Stars Classification. Visual Binary Stars. Mass-Luminosity Relation. Dynamical Parallax. Spectroscopic and Eclipsing Binary Stars. Determination of the Masses of Binary Stars. Stellar Rotation.

STAR CLUSTERS. Open Clusters. Globular Clusters. Star Clusters Stability. H-R Diagram for Star Clusters. Stellar Associations.

GALAXY. Structure and Characteristics of Galaxy. Stellar Populations. Centre of our Galaxy. Galactic Rotation. Galactic Mass and Dark Matter Problem.

INTERSTELLAR MATTER. Composition and Structure of the Interstellar Matter. Interstellar Gas. Neutral Hydrogen. Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs). Interstellar Dust. Interstellar Extinction and Reddening. Cosmic Rays. Galactic Magnetic Field. Nebulae. Reflexion Nebulae. Emission Nebulae (HII Regions, SN Remnants, Planetary Nebulae).

STELLAR EVOLUTION. Basic Stages in Stellar Evolution. Final Stages in Stellar Evolution (White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, Black Holes). Superdense Matter and Pulsars. Evolution of Stars in Close Binary Systems. Binary Pulsars and their Reincarnation. Binary Pulsars and the Effects of General Theory of Relativity (GTR).

VARIABLE STARS. Characteristics and Classification of Variable Stars. Pulsating Stars (RR Lyrae, Cepheid Variable). Cataclysmic Variables. Classical Novae, Recurrent Novae, Dwarf Novae. Supernovae.

EXTRAGALACTIC ASTRONOMY. Classification of Galaxies. Hubble's Law. Estimate of Hubble Constant. Determination of Galactic Distances. Physical Classification of Galaxies. Active Galaxies. Quasars. Metagalaxy. Local Group. Cosmological Models and Hypotheses. Big Bang Model. Microwave Background Radiation.

THE SUN. General Characteristics. Solar Interior. Helioseismology. Solar Atmosphere. Photosphere. Chromosphere. Corona. Solar Wind. Solar Magnetic Field. Solar Activity (Spots, Faculae, Flocculi, Spicules, Eruptions, Prominences). Eruptions and their Influence on the Earth.

SOLAR SYSTEM. General Characteristics and Origin of Solar System. Terrestrial Planets. The Earth as a Celestial Body. Jovian Planets. Minor Planets (Asteroids). Comets. Interplanetary Matter. Meteors. Meteorites.

EXERCISES. Theoretical and Computational Exercises.

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