VII Semester 2+2, VIII Semester 2+2

**TEACHING METHODS IN ASTRONOMY.** Astronomy, Its Tasks,
Significance and Connection with Other Sciences. Teaching
Astronomy as an Educating Process. Didactical Principles and Rules.
Types of
Teaching and Basic Forms. Tasks in Teaching Astronomy. Plans and
Programs of Lectures. Organization of Teaching. Teaching Methods.
Astronomical Tools. Numerical Exercises. Practical Exercises and Observations.
Methodical Instructions for Principal Methodic Units.
Preparation of the Teacher. Examination and Grading. Methods in Giving a Lecture.
Organisation of Free
Activities and Practical Exercises in Astronomy. A Short Survey of the
Development of Teaching Methods in Serbia.

**HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY.** The Beginning of Astronomy in China,
Egypt and Mesopotamia. The Ancient Greek
Period (Aristotle). The Alexandrian School (Aristarchus, Apollonius,
Erathosten,
Hipparchus, Ptolemy). The Middle Ages (The Arabian
Astronomy, the Westeuropean Astronomy and the Byzantian Astronomy).
The Renaissance Astronomy (Coppernicus, Tycho, Kepler, Galileo, Hygens, Newton).
The Development of Practical
Astronomy (Roemer, Halley, Flamsteed, Bradly, Mayer, LaCaille, Maskelyne). The
Development of Theoretical Astronomy (Bernoulli, Euler, Clairaut, D'Alambert, Lagrange,
Laplace). Measurements of the
Earth. Determination of the Astronomical Unit. The
Beginning of Stellar Astronomy (Herschel). The Discovery of Big Planets (Herschel,
Adams, LeVerrier, Lowell, Tombaugh)
and Minor Planets (Piazzi, Gauss, Olbers, Kirkwood, Kuiper). The Development of Meteoritics
(Chladni, Stojković).
The Development of Telescopes: Refractors (Dollond, Fraunhofer, Foucault, Clark)
and Reflectors (Gregory, Newton, Herschel),
till the Present Day (Adaptive Optics, Multiple Mirrors, Space Telescopes).
The Further Development of Observational Astronomy (Bessel, Struve, Pickering). The Further
Development of Celestial Mechanics (Adams, LeVerrier, Newcomb, Poincaré).
The Beginning of Astrophysics (Kirchoff, Draper, Lockyer, Janssen). The Development of Galactic
Astronomy (Leavitt, Shapley, Oort, Baade). The Progress in Studying the Sun (Schwabe,
Carrington, Hale, Babcock). The Development of
Extragalactic Astronomy (Hubble, Humason, Baade, Sandage, Schmidt). The Development of the Theory of
Stellar Structure and Evolution (Schwarzschild, Saha, Eddington, Payne-Gaposchin,
Chandrasekhar, Bethe). The Beginning of Radio Astronomy
(Jansky, Reber, Hay, Hulst). The Development of Space Astronomy. Astronautical Era.
The Development of Nonoptical Astronomy. The Development of Cosmogony
(Kant, Laplace, Jeans, Oparin, Alfven, Modern Hypotheses). Creating of Scientific Cosmology
(Gamow, Dicke, Peebles, Guth, Linde).
Astronomers Nobel Prise Winners for Physics. A Short Survey
of the Development of Serbian Astronomy.

**EXERCISES.** Numerical and Practical Exercises. Practice in
Teaching: at the University, in Planetarium, in Petnica
Sciense Center and in High School. Seminars in Advancement the Astronomy Teaching in
High School or in History of Astronomy.