VII Semester 2+2, VIII Semester 2+2

**INTRODUCTION.** Subject, Methods and Problems in Theoretical Studies
of Cosmic Plasma.

**THE RADIATION THEORY AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE STELLAR
PHOTOSPHERES AND ATMOSPHERES.** Stellar Photospheres. Basic
Notions and Laws. Equation of Transfer and Radiative Equilibrium.
Continuous Absorption and Emission. Absorption Coefficients. Boltzmann
and Saha Formulae. Negative Hydrogen Ion Absorption. Planck and
Rosseland Mean Absorption Coefficient.. Hypothesis of Local
Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). Methods of Integration of the Equation
of Transfer. Legitimacy of Approximations. Specific Problems of
Photosphere Theory. Photospheric Models. Hot Star Model. Cold Star
Model. Stellar atmospheres. Chemical Composition and Physical Conditions in
Stellar Atmospheres. Departure from LTE. Line Spectrum. The Profile of
Lines and Basic Elements for Their Definition. Line Formation Mechanisms
for Two-Level Atoms. Stimulated Emission. Absorption Coefficient in
Spectral Lines. Causes of Spectral Line Broadening and Shifting. Atomic
Thermal Motion and Turbulence. The Influence of Collisions (Stark Effect).
The Influence of Stellar Rotation. Gravitational Red Shift. Magnetic Field
Influence. Equation of Transfer for Spectral Lines and its Solution. Curves
of Growth.

**COSMIC ELECTRODYNAMICS.** The Orbit Theory in Cosmic Plasma. Basic
Equations and Conservation Laws. Magnetic Fields in Cosmic Conditions. The
Zeroth Order Drift and the First Order Drift. Magnetic Mirrors. Charge
Accelerating Mechanisms. Thermal and Nonthermal Mechanisms of Plasma
Radiation. Cyclotron Radiation. Synchrotron Radiation. Plasma As a Fluid.
Fundamental Characteristics of Plasma. Magneto-Hydrodynamics (MHD) and
its Application to Cosmic Plasma. Basic Equations. Lundquist System. Two-
Component Model. Criteria for Application of MHD Approximation.
Magnetic Pressure in Plasma. The Alfven Theorem and its Consequences.
Diffusion of Magnetic Field. "Frozen" magnetic field. Convection in Viscous
Fluid.

**WAVES IN COSMIC PLASMA.** Origin and Characteristics of Oscillations
and Waves in Stellar Plasma. Electrostatic Oscillations and Waves. Intrinsic
Gravitational Waves. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Waves. Alfven Waves.
Magnetoacoustic waves. Shockwaves in Nonconductive Fluids without
Magnetic Field. Shockwaves in Plasma With Magnetic Field. Electromagnetic
Waves in Cosmic Plasma. The Influence of Collisions. The Dispersion
Equation and Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Plasma. Spatial
Dispersion. Transverse and Hall Conductivity. The Motion of
Electromagnetic Waves through Nonhomogeneous Plasma when there are
Collisions and Magnetic Field.